Aircon Parts Guide: Overview of the Basic Principle

Air conditioners keep our homes cool. They work by moving heat from inside to outside. To do this, they have special parts like coils that absorb and release heat, fans that blow cool air, and a compressor—the most important part—that moves a cooling liquid around.

This liquid catches the heat and carries it out of the house.

Keeping these parts clean and in good shape is very important. For example, air filters help by catching dust so we can breathe cleaner air. A piece called the thermostat makes sure the room stays at a comfortable temperature without wasting energy.

Some parts are hidden but still very useful—like drain pipes which stop water from building up in your aircon.

Let’s learn about how each part works together so you can feel cooler just by understanding your air conditioner better! Keep reading to find out all about these amazing pieces of the machine.

Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Air Conditioning


An article explaining the refrigeration cycle and aerial photography with a drone.

To truly grasp how our indoor environments are kept refreshingly cool, it is essential to demystify the science behind air conditioning. It hinges on a process known as the refrigeration cycle—a remarkable sequence where refrigerants take centre stage in transporting heat from inside our sanctuaries to the great outdoors, thus metamorphosing warm indoor air into a chill haven.

The Refrigeration Cycle Explained

The aerial photograph depicts a refrigeration system with condenser and evaporator coils.

The refrigeration cycle is like a magic loop that keeps our homes cool. It starts with the compressor, which squashes the refrigerant, making it hot and high-pressure. This hot gas travels to the condenser coil in the outdoor unit.

Here comes the outside fan that works hard to blow air over this coil. The fan helps push out heat from the refrigerant into the air outside.

Next up is the expansion valve, a smart device in your air conditioner. It takes charge by slowing down and cooling off this high-pressure liquid refrigerant before it hits the evaporator coil sitting inside your home.

This nifty coil then sucks up all that warmth from your indoor air like a sponge with water! As it does so, fans help spread lovely coolness through every corner of your room, while at its core, what was once warm turns chilly and reenters another round of this wonderful chill-making adventure!

Key Components of an Air Conditioner

A close-up shot of air conditioner components in a studio setting.

Delving into the core of an air conditioner unearths a symphony of crucial components, each playing its vital role in delivering that refreshing cool breeze; let’s unravel their functions and see how they work in harmony to maintain your comfort.

The Compressor: The Heart of the System


A close-up of a powerful compressor in a tidy mechanical room.

The compressor pumps refrigerant through the air conditioning system, just like your heart pumps blood through your body. It squeezes the refrigerant to push it out and send it on its way to other parts of the AC unit.

Fixing or replacing a compressor can cost a lot because it’s so important in an air conditioner. This part moves the working fluid between the evaporator and condenser coils, making sure heat leaves your house and cool air stays inside.

The Condenser Coil: Releasing Heat

Inside an air conditioner, the condenser coil has a big job. It takes hot gas from the compressor and cools it down. This turns the gas into a liquid. Think of it like a car radiator getting rid of engine heat.

The condenser coil is made up of tubes, often copper, with fins like you see on a music player’s speaker to spread out heat better. Keeping this part clean is very important for your air conditioning unit to work well.

If dirt builds up, it can’t get rid of heat as it should and that makes your AC less able to cool your room. Regular checks and cleaning help keep everything running smoothly.

The Evaporator Coil: Absorbing Heat

The evaporator coil plays a key role in your air conditioner by grabbing heat from the indoor air. It’s like a sponge that soaks up warmth, helping to cool your home. The refrigerant in the coil picks up this heat and changes into a low-pressure gas, which is essential for making the air cooler.

To keep your AC running smoothly, it’s important to look after the evaporator coil. If it gets dirty or blocked, it won’t absorb heat well and could make your energy bills go higher because the system has to work harder.

Giving this part of your air conditioner regular cleans will stop these problems and can make your AC last longer too.

The Expansion Valve: Regulating Refrigerant Flow

An air conditioner’s expansion valve has a big job. It manages how much refrigerant moves into the evaporator. This part is key because it changes the pressure and temperature of the coolant.

That helps your room get cool.

Imagine the expansion valve as a traffic cop for your AC system, telling the refrigerant when to go and stop. It makes sure just enough gets through without flooding or starving the evaporator coil.

Because of this smart control, you feel comfy inside on hot days.

Supporting Parts Essential for AC Functionality

Close-up shots of air filters and condensation management components in nature.

Beyond the major players in the air conditioning orchestra, there exists a cadre of supporting parts that are pivotal for an optimally functioning AC system. These components work tirelessly behind the scenes to ensure clean and healthy airflow, maintain desired temperatures with precision, and manage condensation to protect your space from potential water damage.

Air Filters: Ensuring Clean Airflow

Air filters play a big role in keeping the air clean inside your home. They trap things like dust, smoke and pollen that can make the air dirty. When your aircon works right, it pumps out cold, fresh air.

But if the filter is dirty or old, it won’t do its job well.

You should check and change your air filters often to keep everything running smoothly. A clean filter means better air for breathing and helps stop dirt from hurting other parts of your air conditioner.

Plus, when you take good care of your filters, you save money because your AC doesn’t have to work as hard to cool down the room.

Thermostats: Temperature Control

Thermostats play a big role in keeping your home comfortable. They watch the room temperature closely. If it gets too hot or cold, they turn your air conditioning on or off to bring back the right level of warmth or coolness.

This smart part helps save energy because it makes sure your system works only when needed.

Most modern aircon systems have a thermistor as well. It’s like a tiny weather station inside that keeps an eye on how warm or cold it is in the room. With this sensor, the thermostat can make small changes to keep everything just right for you and help cut down on wasting power.

Drain Pipes: Removing Condensation

Drain pipes in your air conditioner work hard to make sure moisture doesn’t cause trouble. The drain pan catches water that comes from the air inside. This water, called condensation, needs to go somewhere safe.

So, the drain pipes step in and carry this water away from the unit and out of your house.

Keeping these pipes clear is key for a happy aircon system. If they get blocked, water can back up and lead to problems like leaks or damage inside your air conditioner. Think of them as silent heroes that guard against moisture messing with your comfort at home!

Conclusion: The Synchronised Functioning of AC Parts

A well-maintained air conditioner unit in a nature setting.

Remember every part of your air conditioner has an important job. Think of it like a team, where each player must do their bit for things to work right. Want cleaner air in your house? Make sure the filters are clean.

If you want the cool air to flow nicely, check the fan blades and motor. Keep these parts happy, and they will keep you cool!


1. What are the main parts of an air conditioner?

The main parts of an air conditioner include compressors, evaporator coils, condensers, expansion valves, and fans to keep us cool.

2. How does an aircon make the air cool?

An aircon takes in warm air and uses a refrigeration cycle involving heat transfer to pump out cooled and dehumidified air back into the room.

3. Do all air conditioners have the same cooling stuff inside?

No, different types use different cooling gases like R22 or R410a to absorb and remove heat from the indoor air.

4. Why is there water dripping from my AC unit?

It’s normal! Your AC collects water vapour that turns into liquid (condensate) as it removes humidity from your home’s warm air.

5. What should I do when my aircon doesn’t blow cold enough anymore?

Check for common issues such as dirty filters or faulty components like capacitors or printed circuit boards (PCBs), which may need fixing or replacing.

6. Can smart thermostats work with any type of AC?

Yes, most smart thermostats can be used with various HVAC units including split systems and mini-split conditioners for better control over temperature settings.