Aircon Parts Guide: Overview of the Basic Principle

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The list of all the different air conditioner parts may appear to be overwhelming. However, we are offering our guide to help you. In this guide, we will be covering everything from refrigerants and thermostats to compressors and condensers.  You will also learn more about the various kinds of available systems to help you make an informed decision on which one can meet your needs the best. Before jumping into our list, let’s discuss the air conditioner’s basic principle first.

The Air Conditioner’s Basic Principle

Every air condition system has similar working principles or functions. Heat is removed from one place and replaced with dry, cool air. Then the hot air is expelled to the regular outside area. Using this simple action, it works similarly to a car radiator. However, instead of water be run to cool down the engine, refrigerant is used and goes through the condenser.

Therefore, air conditioners have three main parts:

  • The condenser where cooling occurs, and that is a high temperature
  • The air blower uses a fan and blower motors to direct dry, chilled air into the room
  • The evaporator containing a sub-cooled refrigerant

The evaporator and air blower are indoor air conditioning unit parts,  while the condenser is outdoor. These three stages allow the air conditioner to eliminate heat from a building via its outdoor system. The heat is transferred outside and expelled out into the environment. The refrigerant’s characteristics make all of this possible.

Refrigerant is a kind of chemical that can absorb heat and quickly release heat. Therefore, the refrigerant is continuously pumped throughout the system. The outside fan’s function is to blow air across the hot coil. This helps the refrigerant’s heat to be transferred to the air outside.

Let’s review all of the components that are contained inside of the outdoor units and indoor units.

Learn more about how it works.

Indoor Units

The indoor aircon unit includes the following parts:

Evaporator Coil

Air conditioners use evaporator coils to facilitate the absorption of heat from indoor areas. Usually, they are made out of copper. This material transfers heat easily and is often equipped with extra vanes or fins to increase the surface area. There is also refrigerant in the evaporators needed for the process that occurs between the two chambers – one hot and one cold. Fans are used to circulate cool air over the rooms of a home.

Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

The air conditioner’s PCB is an AC unit’s motherboard. The devices are very similar to the CPU or motherboard of a computer. However, it also provides wiring for different components such as transistors, capacitors, and resistors. The connections between the various parts are referred to as conductive tracks. They connect all of the necessary wires with layers of copper on top of fibreglass silk screening.

Thermostat

An AC thermostat is used for saving energy and maintaining the room temperature that is desired. These devices work because they sense temperature changes to turn the unit off and on as necessary. Both automatic and manual thermostats are available, but every kind of air conditioner has one convenience.

Thermistor

The thermistor is a type of temperature sensor contained in a majority of air conditioning systems. They regulate the temperature in your rooms. The thermostat and resistance signals that detect the room temperature are sent back to adjust the room’s control system to improve comfort automatically.

Capacitor

The capacitor inside an air conditioner is a small cylindrical item that stores charge within an electrostatic field. The capacitor provides the necessary electric boots to turn on the unit and deliver constant power whenever an AC is turned on.

Air Filter

The air conditioner filter uses a porous structure to prevent coarse and large particles from getting through. The purpose is to eliminate such pollutants as smoke, dust, grease, pollen, and others to improve the quality of the indoor environment to prevent all kinds of contaminants and allergens from getting into your house.

Blower Motor

An AC unit’s blower motor moves the fan blades, moving air throughout the entire system. The airflow is what allows you to feel cool pleasant breezes.

Blower Fan

One of the essential components of all air conditioning systems is the blower fan. It blows fresh and cool air into your house. This produces a cooling effect that will refresh you after exposure to a cool breeze for an extended amount of time.

Drain Pan

One of the most critical parts of an air conditioning system is the drain pan that collects the condensation from the inside. Then the water drains through the pipes to be discharged outside or dumped out, depending on where it is located.

Outdoor Units

The Condenser unit or outdoor aircon unit includes the following parts:

Outdoor Condenser Coil

These devices transfer heat between mediums. They are contained in air conditioners and work to remove warmth and vent it into the area cooled down. Condenser coils have a fan that pulls the cool air across them while condensing water vapour from the hot gas stream coming through at high pressure from the tubes.

Compressor

The compressor moves the refrigerant between the condenser coils and evaporator to make it changes into either liquid or gas as necessary, so your system can function correctly. Compressors work in a similar to blood inside the body by pumping a cooling solution through continuously and does not stop until the job is done, which is to make sure you are cool at all times.

Expansion Valve

These valves help with managing liquid refrigerant flow inside of the AC unit. High pressure is changed into low pressure by this device. It then gets sent through the condenser and evaporator before reaching the compressor once again.

Aircon Bracket

The wall bracket of an aircon is a plastic or metal fixture that is fastened to the exterior wall using a flat plate and concrete bolts. The unit is attached to the bracket’s horizontal arms so that it sits above the ground.

Aircon parts that connect the outdoor and indoor units

Aircon Piping

There are 2 different kinds of pipe for various uses featured on a split-type air conditioner. They are copper pipes (whose primary function is transferring refrigerant throughout the entire system) and water drain pipes (whose primary function is to transport condensed humidity away from the house).

Aircon Vent

The vents of the air conditioner help to keep your office or home’s air pressure at a level that is comfortable. You might not be aware, but those openings also provide an extra function: they filter any debris and dust out that may have made their way into your home.

Aircon Insulation

Typical aircon insulation is made with wide black foam wires to protect the copper pipes of the air conditioner unit. The insulation acts as a sponge to soak condensation water up in-between and on top of meal piping to provide improved protection against leakages or dripping.

Drain Pipe

This is one of the essential components of an air conditioning system. It helps to protect against water damage and humidity. Condensate drains through the pipe that is connected to the entire unit to allow it to remove all moisture properly from the evaporator coils and also drain outside the house.

Isolator Switch

The isolator switches on an air conditioner are systems or devices that isolate a specific circuit for maintenance. Currents are prevented from passing through, and they are used to keep the engineers safe who are performing improvements and repairs on the circuits.

What Are An Air Conditioning System’s Four Major Components?

An air conditioner has four major components. When we say ‘major components’ what do we mean? It just refers to the components that all ACs need to have. Without having all these four components, an air conditioner is not an air conditioner. They include the following:

  • Evaporator – This is located on the AC’s cold side. Its main function is receiving liquid refrigerant and turning it into a gas that is then dehumidified and cooled. The heat from the air is absorbed by the gas and transferred to the AC’s condenser.
  • Condenser – It is the exact opposite of what the evaporator is. It also has the opposite function of the evaporator. It is on the AC’s hot side. It helps to transfer the heat that has been collected into the air. Then it transforms the refrigerant into a liquid once again.
  • Compressor – This electric pump works along with the condenser to transform the refrigerant into a liquid and then send the liquid into the evaporator. It is on the AC’s hot side.
  • Expansion Valve – This works with the evaporator. It is frequently located in-between the evaporator and condenser. Its main function is to regulate how much liquid goes into the evaporator.

Conclusion

One of the most critical parts of any building or home is the air conditioner. It is very important to understand the various parts and the way they work together to keep your system maintained for many years. We have discussed some of the more important components, but there are others as well.

Free free to contact us if you need additional help to understand these components. Our team has worked for more than 18 years in this industry, and we are happy to share our experience ad expertise with anyone who could use it – whether this means repairing your current system or installing new equipment.

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